Home Diabetes Shots Gestational Diabetes Insulin Shots: 5 Risk Factors & 6 Complications

Gestational Diabetes Insulin Shots: 5 Risk Factors & 6 Complications

Insulin injections for gestational diabetes
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Gestational diabetes is a condition that affects some women during pregnancy, leading to high blood sugar levels that can pose health risks for both the mother and the baby. Approximately 6% to 9% of pregnant women in the United States are estimated to develop gestational diabetes.

Effectively managing gestational diabetes is crucial to ensuring a healthy pregnancy and delivery. One of the primary treatment options for gestational diabetes is insulin injections, which assist in lowering blood sugar levels and preventing complications.

This article explores gestational diabetes, shedding light on its definition and impact. We will explore the workings of insulin injections, guide their safe administration, and discuss the potential benefits and side effects.

We will also address common concerns surrounding flu shots and gestational diabetes while offering valuable resources and expert advice for women navigating this condition.

Gestational Diabetes Insulin Shots: Things to Know

Things to Know About Insulin Shots in Gestational Diabetes

Diabetic gestation impacts certain women during pregnancy, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels that may pose health risks to both the mother and baby. In this section, we will provide a comprehensive explanation of gestational diabetes, its impact on pregnancy, and the effectiveness of insulin shots in its management.

What is Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a specific form of diabetes that manifests exclusively during pregnancy. It arises when the placenta, responsible for connecting the baby to the mother's blood supply, generates hormones that disrupt the function of insulin, a vital hormone that aids in the body's utilization of glucose (sugar) for energy.

Consequently, elevated blood sugar levels ensue, posing potential health implications for the mother and the baby.

Gestational diabetes may manifest in various symptoms, such as:

  • Heightened thirst.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Being overweight.
  • Fatigue.
  • Blurred vision.
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What Are The Risk Factors And Complications of Gestational Diabetes?

Some factors that increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes include:

  • Being over 30 years old.
  • Having a family history of diabetes.
  • Being overweight or obese.
  • Having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  • Having had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes can result in various complications, including:

  • Excessive weight in the newborn.
  • Preterm birth.
  • Respiratory distress syndrome in infants.
  • Hypoglycemia in the baby.
  • Increased risk of future diabetes for both the baby and the mother.
  • High blood pressure and preeclampsia in the mother.

Complications during pregnancy can significantly impact the well-being and development of your baby, as well as your health and post-delivery recovery. Thus, it becomes crucial to effectively manage your blood sugar levels throughout pregnancy to prevent or reduce the occurrence of these complications.

How Do Insulin Shots Work For Gestational Diabetes?

Effect of insulin shots on gestational diabetes

Insulin shots are a primary treatment for managing blood sugar levels in women with gestational diabetes. Insulin, a hormone that facilitates glucose utilization for energy, plays a crucial role in the body. Insufficient insulin production or ineffective utilization leads to elevated blood sugar levels as glucose accumulates in the bloodstream.

Insulin shots effectively lower blood sugar levels by administering synthetic insulin into the subcutaneous fatty tissue. Consequently, insulin enters the bloodstream and enables glucose transfer into cells, which can be utilized as an energy source.

Insulin shots are typically recommended for women with gestational diabetes when diet and exercise alone aren't sufficient to manage blood sugar levels. The required amount and type of insulin can vary based on factors like pregnancy stage, blood sugar levels, weight goals, and food intake.

Some women may only require one type of insulin, while others may need a combination of two to achieve optimal blood sugar control. Commonly used insulin types for gestational diabetes include:

  • Rapid-acting insulin: Within just 15 minutes, this type of insulin kicks in and stays effective for approximately 3 to 4 hours. It's typically administered before meals to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels after eating.
  • Short-acting insulin: Onset occurs in around 30 minutes, and this form works for 5 to 8 hours. It's also taken before meals to regulate blood sugar levels throughout the day.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin: Beginning to take effect within 2 to 4 hours, this insulin variant maintains its efficacy for 12 to 18 hours. Usually, it's administered once or twice daily to establish a consistent baseline of insulin.
  • Long-acting insulin: Taking a few hours to initiate, long-acting insulin lasts up to 24 hours. It's typically injected once daily, providing constant insulin throughout the day and night.

To ensure stable blood sugar levels and promote a healthy pregnancy, adhere to your doctor's instructions for administering insulin shots. This will effectively maintain your well-being and support the optimal development of your baby.

Taking The Plunge: Administering Insulin Shots For Gestational Diabetes

Anatomy of Gestational Diabetes Insulin Shots

Administering insulin shots to oneself during pregnancy may seem daunting at first, but with proper guidance and practice, it can become a routine part of managing gestational diabetes effectively. Here are some simple steps to help you learn how to prepare and give yourself insulin shots.

Get Ready

To prepare for administering an insulin shot, follow these steps:

  • Begin by washing your hands thoroughly with soap and running water, ensuring they are completely dry afterward.
  • Get all the necessary supplies in a convenient bag for easy access. You'll need an insulin syringe, an insulin bottle, and an alcohol wipe. If you use an insulin pen, ensure you have a compatible needle. For reusable pens, you may need an insulin cartridge. Also, keep an alcohol swab handy.
  • Before using insulin, check the label. Note the date of first use, as room temperature storage lasts about a month. Follow all instructions, including proper storage guidelines and expiration dates. For disposable pens, ensure insulin is not expired, as indicated on the pen's label.

By following these guidelines, you can ensure a smooth and safe process while administering insulin.

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Prepare The Shot

The way you prepare will vary depending on whether you are using one type of insulin or mixing two types. To prepare for a shot with just one type of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a single insulin dose.

For a shot with two types of insulin, follow the instructions for preparing a mixed insulin dose. If you're using an insulin pen, follow the instructions from the manufacturer on how to attach the needle, prime the pen, and set the dose.

Preparing a Single Dose of Insulin

To prepare a shot with insulin, follow these steps:

  • Roll the insulin bottle between your hands to mix it well. Avoid shaking vigorously, which can create air bubbles that affect your dose.
  • Take off the needle cap and pull the plunger back to draw air into the syringe equal to your insulin dose.
  • Use an alcohol wipe or a cotton ball with alcohol to clean the rubber stopper on the insulin bottle.
  • Insert the needle through the rubber stopper and air into the bottle. This helps in drawing out the insulin later.
  • Hold the bottle and syringe firmly, upside down, with one hand. Ensure the needle tip is in the liquid.
  • Pull back the plunger slowly to draw out your insulin dose. Check for air bubbles in the syringe. If you see any, gently tap the syringe with your finger to make them rise to the top, then push them back into the bottle by moving the plunger slightly. Repeat until there are no air bubbles.
  • Remove the needle from the bottle and place it on a flat surface. Avoid touching or bending the needle.

Preparing a Mixed Dose of Insulin

Mixing insulin for gestational diabetes

To get insulin shots with two types, follow these steps:

  • Roll both bottles of insulin between your palms to mix them well. Avoid shaking vigorously, which may result in air bubbles affecting your dosage.
  • Remove the cap from the needle and pull back the plunger until you have injected the correct dose of intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin (the cloudy one).
  • Wipe the rubber stopper on the intermediate or long-acting insulin bottle with alcohol wipes or cotton balls dipped in alcohol.
  • Push the needle into the rubber stopper to inject the air into the bottle. Wait to draw out any insulin. Leave the needle in the bottle.
  • Remove the rubber stopper from the bottle of rapid-acting or short-acting insulin (the clear one) with another alcohol wipe or cotton ball dipped in alcohol.
  • Turn both bottles and syringes upside down, holding them firmly with one hand. Ensure both needle tips are in their respective liquids.
  • Slowly withdraw the plunger to draw out the acting insulin (the clear one). Make sure the syringe is free of air bubbles. If you see any, tap the syringe gently to cause them to rise, then push them back into bottles by moving the plunger slightly. Repeat until no air bubbles remain in the syringe.
  • Without removing the needle from short-acting or rapid-acting insulin (the clear one), carefully release the plunger to release the long-acting or intermediate insulin (the cloudy one). Check for air bubbles again and repeat the process until none are left.
  • Remove the needle from both bottles onto a flat surface. Do not touch or bend the needle.
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Prepare The Site

Before administering your injection, take the necessary time to complete the following steps:

Select the injection site on your body. If you rotate the areas you inject into each day, aim to use the same site at the corresponding time consistently. For instance:

  • During breakfast, administer insulin in one of your arms.
  • At dinner, inject insulin into one of your legs.

If you cleanse the skin with alcohol beforehand, allow it to dry before proceeding. Ensure that the muscles surrounding the injection area are relaxed.

Give The Shot

To give yourself insulin shots, follow these steps:

  • Inject the insulin at a 90-degree angle into a fold of skin with one hand. Pull out the needle and let go of the skin. Insert the needle 90° into the skin. Push the plunger down to inject the insulin. It is important not to rub or massage the injection site since this could affect its absorption.
  • Be sure to dispose of used syringes and needles in a safe container. Do not reuse or share needles or syringes. Follow your local medical waste disposal guidelines.
  • Keep track of your insulin regimen and blood sugar levels by recording your dose, the time, and the injection site.

Benefits and Side Effects of Insulin Shots For Gestational Diabetes

Side effects and benefits of gestational diabetes insulin shots

Insulin shots can help women with gestational diabetes, but they also have some drawbacks. Here are the positives and negatives of using insulin shots while pregnant.


Insulin shots for gestational diabetes have several benefits:

  • They help keep blood sugar levels stable, which is important for a healthy pregnancy. High blood sugar levels can cause problems in mothers and babies, such as a large baby, early labor, birth defects, stillbirth, low blood sugar in the baby, and a higher chance of needing a cesarean delivery.
  • They reduce the risk of complications in both mothers and babies. Insulin shots can lower the chances of developing conditions like high blood pressure, protein in the urine, a life-threatening buildup of acids in the blood, and eye damage. For the baby, they can help prevent jaundice, breathing problems, and low calcium levels.
  • They give women more control over managing gestational diabetes. With insulin shots, women can adjust their dose based on their blood sugar levels, what they eat, and how active they are. This can help them feel more confident and avoid taking oral medications that may have unknown effects on the baby.

Side Effects

Insulin shots for gestational diabetes may have side effects, including:

  • Skin reactions or allergic responses at the injection site. Some women might experience mild redness, swelling, itching, bruising, pain, or infection after injecting insulin. Over-the-counter numbing creams can usually treat these reactions. If they become severe or persist, medical attention may be necessary.
  • Hypoglycemia, which is when blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dL. Symptoms can include shakiness, sweating, hunger, dizziness, headache, confusion, irritability, or fainting. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can be dangerous for both mom and baby. Regularly monitoring blood sugar levels, eating balanced meals and snacks, and carrying fast-acting glucose (such as juice, candy, or glucose tablets) can help prevent hypoglycemia.
  • Weight gain. Insulin shots can cause weight gain in some women with gestational diabetes, particularly if calorie intake is not balanced with physical activity. Weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of complications such as high blood pressure, cesarean delivery, and future diabetes.

Addressing Concerns: The Flu Shot and Gestational Diabetes

The flu shot is a vaccine that protects you from the viral infection that affects your breathing. It's recommended for everyone 6 months and older, especially pregnant women who are more likely to have problems with the flu. The flu shot is safe and works well for pregnant women and their babies. Some women with gestational diabetes may worry about how the flu shot might affect them.

Here are some common questions and answers about gestational diabetes and flu shots.

Is It Safe To Get The Flu Shot During Pregnancy?

Flu shots during pregnancy are safe?

Yes, it is safe to receive a flu shot while pregnant. The flu shot doesn't have live viruses that can infect pregnant women or their babies. Many studies have shown that the flu shot is safe during pregnancy and for babies. Getting the flu shot doesn't raise the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, birth defects, or autism in children.

When Should I Get The Flu Shot While Pregnant?

The ideal time for pregnant women to get a flu shot is when it becomes available in your area, usually from September to October. This allows enough time to develop immunity before the flu season's peak from December to February.

You can still get the flu shot at any time during pregnancy, as long as you haven't had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the flu shot or any of its ingredients.

How Does The Flu Shot Affect My Blood Sugar Levels?

The flu shot doesn't directly affect your blood sugar levels. Having the flu can make your blood sugar levels go up and down. It can make your body resist insulin more and require more fluids and calories.

If you have gestational diabetes, having the flu can make it harder to manage. You might need help to eat, drink, test your blood sugar, or take insulin shots. So, getting the flu shot can help you avoid it and the problems it can cause with your blood sugar levels.

How Does The Flu Shot Benefit Me And My Baby?

Getting the flu shot has many benefits for both you and your baby, including:

  • Protecting you from getting sick with the flu. The flu can cause serious complications for pregnant women, like pneumonia and dehydration. It can even lead to preterm labor or miscarriage.
  • Protecting your baby from flu virus infection. The flu can affect your baby's growth and development in the womb. It can also cause problems after birth, such as low birth weight, respiratory issues, or ear infections.
  • Passing on immunity to your baby. After getting the flu shot, the antibodies you develop can cross the placenta and help protect your baby from the flu for up to 6 months after birth.
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Seeking Support: Resources and Expert Advice

Dealing with gestational diabetes and insulin shots can be tough and stressful for many women. But remember, you're not alone in this journey. Experts and resources are available to help you cope with this condition and guide you.

Here are a few of them:

  • Your healthcare team: Your healthcare team comprises professionals trained in caring for women with gestational diabetes. This includes your OB-GYN, endocrinologist, diabetes educator, dietitian, nurse, pharmacist, and social worker. They help monitor blood sugar levels, adjust insulin doses, plan meals and snacks, teach safe administration of insulin shots, and address any concerns or questions you have.
  • Your family and friends: During pregnancy, your loved ones can offer emotional support, practical help, and encouragement. They can assist with household tasks, childcare, shopping, and transportation. They can accompany you to appointments, remind you of insulin shots, and join in healthy activities like walking or swimming.
  • Online communities and support groups: Online communities and support groups offer a space to connect with like-minded women going through similar experiences. Share stories, tips, challenges, and successes with empathetic members who understand. Gain insights, advice, and resources to learn and grow.


Some women suffer from gestational diabetes during pregnancy. It can lead to high blood sugar levels, which pose health risks for both mother and baby. One of the main ways to treat gestational diabetes is with insulin shots. These treatments reduce blood sugar levels effectively and prevent complications.

To use insulin shots safely and effectively during pregnancy, it's crucial to understand what gestational diabetes is, how insulin shots work, how to administer them properly, and their potential benefits and side effects.

Getting a flu shot while pregnant is particularly important if you have gestational diabetes. Remember, resources and expert advice can assist you in coping with this disorder.

By following your healthcare team's recommendations, regularly monitoring your blood sugar levels, taking prescribed insulin shots, maintaining a balanced diet, and staying physically active, you can effectively manage gestational diabetes and enjoy a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

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Matt Callard
I am a passionate traveler, as if traveling were my full-time job. I like to change my surroundings and environment, like changing desktop wallpaper. Nature increases the concentration in my writing, which helps brainstorming flow in my blood. I have a cat named Kitana. She is the most desperate about traveling, more than any other cat. How do I know? If I miss any tour in any week, she literally destroys my clothing with her wolverine nails.

I and my cat also participate in extreme activities like surfing, biking, hill tracking, paragliding, boating, etc. She was always there in my accidents, injuries, and stitches. She always sits on my lap when it hurts me most. The funniest part is that she has experienced all my tattoos. She sleeps on my blanket when I go through any painful experience.

My hobbies and lifestyle added many pain and injuries to my life. That is why I have a lot of experience in dealing with different levels of pain and burn. It influenced me to become a pain expert and share primary suggestions to handle any unwanted situations that hurt.


  • How do I store and dispose of my insulin and syringes?

    To make your insulin safe and effective, remember these simple guidelines. Store it in a cool place, away from sunlight and heat. Unopened insulin can be kept in the fridge until its expiration date. Opened bottles can stay at room temperature for up to a month unless stated otherwise.

    Always check for signs of freezing, cloudiness, or discoloration before using. Dispose of used syringes in a puncture-proof container, following local guidelines for medical waste disposal. Avoid throwing them in the trash or flushing them down the toilet. Stay safe and responsible!

  • How do I adjust my insulin dose if I have nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea?

    Feeling sick with nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea can cause dehydration and affect your blood sugar and insulin requirements. To avoid dehydration, you should check your blood sugar levels more frequently, drink sugar-free fluids, and seek advice from your healthcare provider on adjusting your insulin dosage and dietary choices.

    You may need to reduce your insulin dose if your blood sugar levels are low or normal or increase it when it is high.

  • How do I travel with insulin and syringes?

    When traveling by plane, it's important to carry your insulin and syringes in your carry-on bag, not checked luggage. Remember to bring a letter from your doctor explaining your condition and need for insulin and syringes. Keep your insulin in an insulated bag with a cold pack to maintain the right temperature.

    Adjust your insulin schedule based on the time difference between home and destination. Be prepared for delays or emergencies by bringing extra supplies like insulin, syringes, glucose tablets, snacks, and a blood glucose meter.

  • How do I cope with needle phobia or pain from insulin shots?

    If you're scared of needles or feel pain from insulin shots, there are strategies to help you overcome your fear or discomfort. For instance, you can use a numbing cream or ice pack on the injection spot before giving yourself the shot. You can also try a smaller needle or an injection device that hides the needle.

    While giving yourself the shot, you can distract yourself by listening to music, watching TV, or talking to someone. Before and during the shot, you can practice relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or visualization. After the shot, you can reward yourself by doing something you enjoy.

  • How do I prevent or treat low blood sugar emergencies?

    Low blood sugar emergencies, also known as hypoglycemia, can happen if you take too much insulin, skip a meal or snack, exercise more than usual, or have alcohol. Symptoms may include shaking, vomiting, sweating, headaches, confusion, irritability, or fainting.

    Low blood sugar can harm you and your baby if left untreated. To avoid low blood sugar emergencies, regularly check your blood sugar levels, eat balanced meals and snacks on time, and always carry a quick source of glucose, like juice, candy, or glucose tablets.

    To treat low blood sugar emergencies, follow the rule of 15: consume 15 grams of carbohydrates, like 4 ounces of juice, 3 glucose tablets, or 5 hard candies, wait 15 minutes, and check your blood sugar again. If it's still below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), repeat until above 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L).

    Then have a small snack with protein and carbs, such as cheese and crackers, to stabilize blood sugar.

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